Embodied metaphors in tangible interaction design.
Bakker, S., A. N. Antle, et al. (2012). “Embodied metaphors in tangible interaction design.” Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 16(4): 433-449.
This is a paper that analyses the use of metaphors for embodied interaction or tangible user interfaces (TUI).
It is required to study which embodied metaphors will be able to be translated into the TUI. When children employ embodied interaction, it supports their cognitive development. Their knowledge is developed by experiences they had in the real world. High-order thinking processes arises from bodily disposition and experiences producing this way their cognitive structures. These thinking processes are also known as ‘image or bodied schemata’. Here is where metaphors make relationships in between concepts.
Researchers like Vygotsky and Galperin, have stated how material operations are the source of mental procedures. For this, physical objects can narrow the gap in between concrete and abstract concepts as proposed by Bruner. So the process of gaining new knowledge is based on experiences that are further on reflected. TUIs specialise in this kind of reflection, specially abstract problems.
On the design aspect, it is very important that the interaction design is properly developed, making sure that the embodied object translates into the cognitive process.
This team identified five stages where the object can be analysed to provide the best user involvement:
- Enactment studies to identify applicable embodied metaphors
- Creating low-fidelity prototypes based on embodied metaphors, to explore the input design space
- Evaluating low-fidelity prototypes to validate the input design space in terms of affordances which support embodied schematic movements
- Creating high-fidelity interactive prototypes with suitable affordances, to explore the mapping between the input design space and metaphorically linked output responses
- Evaluating high-fidelity interactive prototypes, to validate the input design space, embodied interactional mappings and output responses
Applying Situation Awareness Approach to Cooperative Play in Interactive Installation Storytelling System
Wen-Hwa, C., S. Chich-Jen, et al. (2010). “Applying Situation Awareness Approach to Cooperative Play in Interactive Installation Storytelling System.” Cooperative Design, Visualization, and Engineering. Proceedings 7th International Conference, CDVE 2010.
Jean Piaget had previously identified the important role in cognitive development when playing. When learners utilise their cognitive thinking process to generate new knowledge, they construct, reconstruct and organize their knowledge. This has been identified as a process for constructivist learning. Furthermore, social constructivism involves a system to share information and uncertain assignments. Children can be able to share their understanding of specific tasks and through the process of peer learning they can become active participants.
It is suggested that it is necessary to produce correlation in between the TUI and the GUI to avoid cognitive differences when designing the interface. Providing a simple interactive process will enhance the awareness of the user.
It is necessary to make a visual, and tangible relationship in between the tools applied in order to make them more intuitive.
Using avatars and virtual environments in learning: What do they have to offer?
Falloon, G. (2010). “Using avatars and virtual environments in learning: What do they have to offer?” British Journal of Educational Technology 41(1): 108-122.
Peterson (2005: p.1) has pinpointed how interaction in virtual spaces can be improved by the use of a ‘virtual self’. These virtual selves are ‘online manifestations of self’. This visible persona acts as a vessel that allows imaginary experiences to transcend to the actual experiences and vice versa.
There are many people who have trouble engaging in face-to-face communication, virtual scenes can facilitate these social interactions. Virtual environments are pathways where people can communicate in way in which they would not be capable to do so in a different setting. Not only they can facilitate the communication process but also they can evolve to the requirements of their users. This potential for adaptation will also enhance social interaction. The potential presented by virtual environments can provide grounding for collective learning in a way that would not be achievable in a traditional setting.
The debate of how learners will engage with virtual environments, it has been identified how they provide a ‘safe pedagogical platform’ for learning. Meanwhile in learner-centered tasks, avatar environments have been identified useful.
The digital world can promote student communication. Seymour Papert has identified how creating Microworlds has allowed learners to organise their thoughts in a way that they can be conducted efficiently. This concept shares many of the elements of a virtual world.
Evidence suggests that by emulating real world environments where the learner can pinpoint specific questions or problems will enhance the learning process. Also, by communicating their findings will promote their proficiency to collaborate with other peers.
Micro Culture: Interactive Storytelling and Learning in the Museum
Marchetti, E. (2012). “Micro Culture: Interactive Storytelling and Learning in the Museum.” 2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning (DIGITEL 2012).
There is a necessity for learners to express themselves within a learning platform.
Several projects have been developed where playful interaction has been utilised in order to provide better engagement with knowledge.
Hall and Bannon developed through ‘user-cantered iterative design process’ where researchers could analyse the learning needs of children in the Hunt Museum in Limerick, Ireland. In the Berlin Museum of Natural History, a table-top installation called The ‘Tree of Life’ was developed to provide visitors with other means of information. The interface of Kurio, presented a role-play activity where families interacted with tangible objects and a table touch interface. Role-play dynamics can promote storytelling proceedings. Visitors presented more interest about lives of people from the past. MicroCulture is another project where children engage through role-play with roles of political authorities when taking control of geographic territories.
When employing knowledge from adult experts when they are provided with problem-solving activities, children can pick up information by combining all their resources in a non-formal domain.
Interactive Storytelling for Elementary School Nature Science Education
Jui-Feng, W., K. Hsiu-lien, et al. (2011). “Interactive Storytelling for Elementary School Nature Science Education.” 2011 11th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2011).
In education, it has been proven that storytelling is a good way to promote thinking within the students. The thinking framework can be displayed thus providing a positive approach to conceive abstract perceptions are acquired through storytelling. Learning through storytelling usually requires a person that assesses the students. This could be problematic and time consuming. To solve this, the storytelling process can be divided into stages where the supervisor can provide guidance or feedback.
Interactive storytelling for children education
Evangelista, C., V. Neri, et al. (2009). “Interactive storytelling for children education.” 2009 Conference in Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-GAMES). First International Conference, VS-GAMES 2009.
When utilising storytelling in education, the experience or event can told digitally through electronic means. According to this research, seven main components are identified for the structure of a story:
“Point of view (stories should be personal and “authentic”), The Dramatic Question (stories should tell something worthy), Emotional Content (stories should involve
people), The Gift Of Your Voice (a way to personalize stories), Soundtrack (which helps understanding and adds aesthetical value), Economy (very often stories can be told with few words, images and music: let the “implicit” talk, use metaphors), Pacing (good stories “breath”).”
Through the constructivist approach, every learner will be capable to build from the external world, his or her own cognitive parameters. For these type of scenario, games can act as an apparatus for children in order for them to prompt their curiosity and motivation.
Another way for learners to share their stories is through drawings. Children reach an intellectual stage where they learn to control their gestures becoming capable of expressing feelings and emotions through illustrations. They can express personal problems and anxieties in a clearer way. Eventually it becomes a mindful communication operation that manifests in kids in between 10 and 13. Technology can help in the elaboration of these visual stories.
G-Flash: An authoring tool for guided digital storytelling
Jumail, D. R. A. Rambli, et al. (2011). “G-Flash: An authoring tool for guided digital storytelling.” 2011 IEEE Symposium on Computers & Informatics (ISCI).
Many educators are becoming more eager to implement a more interactive method in their teaching activities, including constructive learning and collaboration through edutainment. Digital storytelling is a powerful tool that allows elaborated stories to be created with a logic sense. Combining many types of media can produce digital storytelling.
Illustrated flash cards for example, can improve memory and recall. They can be utilised as an assistant to develop the story. This might prove useful when lacking the presence of a guide in the storytelling process.
Several storytelling tools have been developed. For example: KIdPad, a collaborative storytelling tool, Wayang authoring from Bremen University developed an authoring tool with graphical characters, oTTomer, developed to present a story to young children in between 6 and 12 and the FaTe2 where they combine storytelling with edutainment on a web-based, multiuser virtual space.
Designing for Children’s Mobile Storytelling
Franckel, S., E. Bonsignore, et al. (2010). “Designing for Children’s Mobile Storytelling.” International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction 2(2).
Since storytelling has proven useful for education purposes, mobile tools have been studied to understand how do children want to tell their stories once engaged in a mobile platform.
Children have integrated mobile platforms to their everyday life, even from a very early age.
When it comes to human communication and making sense of concepts, storytelling is a vital. In the case of children, it provides them with tools for storytelling. It provides a fundamental pathway to explore cultures.
According to this research although much research has been done around storytelling, not much of it has been done in how mobile platforms can develop storytelling means. There has been many cases in which the digital platform behaves just as an extension of the print based information. Other tools communicate stories but do not allow those stories to be extended or to create new ones.